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In 1871––79, he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period.Schliemann declared one of these cities—at first Troy I, later Troy II—to be the city of Troy, and this identification was widely accepted at that time.
Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus.
Le Chavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most commonly accepted theory for almost a century.
In 1866, Frank Calvert, the brother of the United States' consular agent in the region, made extensive surveys and published in scholarly journals his identification of the hill of New Ilium (which was on farmland owned by his family) on the same site.
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature (such as Aeschylus's Oresteia).
The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid.
However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation.